History Lesson Part Two (1888 - 2001)

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History

Plantations in Victoria

19th Century

1888: Ballarat Region - 9.5 hectares P.Nigra and other conifers planted.

1889: Ballarat Region - 5.2 hectares P.Nigra and other conifers planted.

1894: Ballarat Region - 1.7 hectares P.Nigra planted.

1895: Ballarat Region - 1.4 hectares conifers planted.

1899: Ballarat Region: - 3.9 hectares P.Nigra planted.

1900 - 1919 Forests Commission Plantings

1900: Ballarat Region: 1.8 hectares P.Radiata, 5.3 hectares P. Nigra and 2.8 hectares other conifers planted.

1910: Bendigo Region: 0.6 hectares P.radiata planted. Geelong Region 4.2 hectares P.Radiata planted.

1916: Ballarat Region: 7.2 hectares P. Nigra planted.

1917: Ballarat Region: 2.2 hectares P.Nigra planted. Bendigo Region 5.8 hectares P.Radiata planted.

1919: Ballarat Region: 3 hectares of P.Nigra and 0.4 hectares other conifers planted.Bendigo Region 1.8 hectares P.Radiata planted.

1920 - 1929 Forests Commission Plantings

1921: Statewide: 5.9 hectares P.Nigra and 3.8 hectares other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat   3.7         3.7
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta   2.2   3.8     6.0
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total   5.9   3.8     9.7

1922: Bendigo Region: 0.1 hectares other conifers planted

1923: Statewide: 7.5 hectares P.radiata and 1.3 hectares other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 7.5           7.5
Bendigo              
Geelong       1.3     1.3
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 7.5     1.3     8.8

 

1924: Ballarat Region: 0.1 hectares P.radiata planted.

1925: Bendigo Region: 1.1 hectares P.radiata planted.

1926: Statewide: 10.3 hectares P.radiata planted, 0.7 hectares Ps.Menzies and 0.5 hectares other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 7.1           7.1
Bendigo 3.2           3.2
Geelong     0.7 0.5     1.2
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 10.3   0.7 0.5     11.5

 

1927: Statewide: 11.6 hectares P.radiata planted, 4.7 hectares other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 6.9     4.3     11.2
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 4.7     0.4     5.1
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 11.6     4.7     16.3

 

1928: Statewide: 41.3 hectares P.radiata planted, 41.2 hectares Ps Menzies planted and 14.9 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 10.0   0.1       10.1
Bendigo 7.4           7.4
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 23.9   41.1 14.9     79.9
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 41.3   41.2 14.9     97.4

 

1929: Statewide: 41.6 hectares P.radiata planted, 9.5 hectares P.Nigra planted and 3.8 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac       0.3     0.3
Ballarat 5.9           5.9
Bendigo 35.7           35.7
Geelong       3.5     3.5
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta   9.5         9.5
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 41.6 9.5   3.8     54.9

 

1930 - 1939 Forests Commission Plantings

1930: Statewide: 4.9 hectares P.radiata planted, 6.6 hectares P.Nigra planted, 6.9 hectares Ps Menzies planted and 15 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac     6.9 15     21.9
Ballarat 4.5           4.5
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 0.4 6.6         7.0
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 4.9 6.6 6.9 15     33.4

 

1931: Statewide: 9.2 hectares P.radiata planted, 43.1 hectares P.Nigra planted, 16.7 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 22.6 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac 6.0 43.1 16.7 20.9     86.7
Ballarat 3.2           3.2
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta       1.7     1.7
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 9.2 43.1 16.7 22.6     91.6

 

1932: Statewide: 11.6 hectares P.radiata planted, 9.9 hectares P.Nigra planted, 39.9 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 24 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac 11.6 6.9 39.9 23.5     81.9
Ballarat              
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta   3.0   0.5     3.5
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 11.6 9.9 39.9 24     85.4

 

1933: Statewide: 20 hectares P.radiata planted, 39 hectares P.Nigra planted, 43.7 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 46.9 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac 7.0 26.8 38.9 20.0     92.7
Ballarat 3.4           3.4
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 9.6 12.2 4.8 26.9     53.5
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 20 39 43.7 46.9     149.6

 

1934: Statewide: 2.1 hectares P.radiata planted, 8.1 hectares P.Nigra planted, 72.4 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 13.4 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac 0.9 2.9 44.9 6.1     54.8
Ballarat              
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 1.2 5.2 27.5 7.3     41.2
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 2.1 8.1 72.4 13.4     96

 

1935: Statewide: 43.7 hectares Ps Menzies planted and 73.6 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac     42.9 31.7     74.6
Ballarat              
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta     0.8 41.9     42.7
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total     43.7 73.6     117.3

 

1936: Statewide: 57.3 hectares P.Nigra planted, 55.2 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 16.5 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac   49 47.2 16.5     112.7
Ballarat              
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta   8.3 8       16.3
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total   57.3 55.2 16.5     129

 

1937: Statewide: 3.8 hectares P.radiata planted, 5.2 hectares P.Nigra planted, 33.2 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 64.3 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac   4.7 30.2 19.7     54.6
Ballarat 2.1           2.1
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 0.7 0.5   2.0     3.2
Wangaratta 1.0   3.0 42.6     46.6
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 3.8 5.2 33.2 64.3     106.5

 

1938: Statewide: 65.9 hectares P.radiata planted, 2.4 hectares P.Nigra planted, 1.1 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 26.9 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac 6.2 0.9 0.5 11.6     19.2
Ballarat 14.2           14.2
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 45.5 1.5   10.0     57.0
Wangaratta     0.6 5.3     5.9
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 65.9 2.4 1.1 26.9     96.3

 

1939: Statewide: 16.9 hectares P.radiata planted, 0.2 hectares P.Nigra planted, 17.8 hectares of Ps Menzies planted and 30 hectares of other conifers planted.

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 8.5           8.5
Bendigo              
Geelong       0.1     0.1
Benalla              
Alexandra 8.4 0.2 17.8 29.3     55.7
Wangaratta       0.6     0.6
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 16.9 0.2 17.8 30.0     64.9

1940 - 1949 Forests Commission Plantings

1940

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 1.5           1.5
Bendigo              
Geelong       5.0     0.1
Benalla              
Alexandra 6.9   0.3 1.8     9.0
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 8.4   0.3 6.8     15.5

1941

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat              
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 2.1           2.1
Wangaratta 13.9           13.9
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland 0.4           0.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 16.4           16.4

1942

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 3.6           3.6
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 0.5 6.6   2.5     9.6
Wangaratta       0.5     0.5
Wodonga              
Yarram 0.3           0.3
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 4.4 6.6   3.0     14.0

1943

2 hectares Ps Menzies - Alexandra Region

1944

0.7 hectares P.radiata, 1.0 hectare P.nigra (Ballarat Region) and 0.1 hectare eucalypt (Yarram Region)

1945

1.7 hectares P.radiata (Yarram Region)

1946

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 69.6           69.6
Bendigo              
Geelong 1.3           1.3
Benalla              
Alexandra 13.9           13.9
Wangaratta 0.5           0.5
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland         17.5   17.5
Bairnsdale              
Total 85.3       17.5   102.8

1947

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 2.5           2.5
Colac              
Ballarat 36.6           36.6
Bendigo 6.7           6.7
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland         23.1   23.1
Bairnsdale              
Total 45.8       23.1   68.9

1948

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 14.6           14.6
Bendigo 19.1           19.1
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 13.3           13.3
Wodonga              
Yarram              
Central Gippsland 0.7       8.6   9.3
Bairnsdale              
Total 47.7       8.6   56.3

1949

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 31.7           31.7
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 12.9           12.9
Wodonga              
Yarram 0.3       24.8   25.1
Central Gippsland         5.6   5.6
Bairnsdale              
Total 44.9       30.4   75.3

1950 - 1959 Forests Commission Plantings

1950

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac 28.6           28.6
Ballarat 69.3           69.3
Bendigo 14.5           14.5
Geelong 7.8           7.8
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 2.0           2.0
Wodonga              
Yarram         35.8   35.8
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 122.2       35.8   158.0

1951

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 1.3     4.0     5.3
Colac 40.7           40.7
Ballarat 69.3           69.3
Bendigo 17.7           17.7
Geelong 0.4           0.4
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram 0.3       9.2   9.5
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 129.7     4.0 9.2   142.9

1952

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland       1.8     1.8
Colac              
Ballarat 51.2           51.2
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram       0.1 0.2   0.3
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 51.2     1.9 0.2   53.3

1953

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 6.5           6.5
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla       1.3     1.3
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 1.8           1.8
Wodonga              
Yarram         7.8   7.8
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 8.3     1.3 7.8   17.4

1954

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland              
Colac              
Ballarat 52.6           52.6
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 1.4           1.4
Wangaratta              
Wodonga              
Yarram         6.3   6.3
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 54       6.3   60.3

1955

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 0.4     0.4     0.8
Colac              
Ballarat 49.4           49.4
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 1.1           1.1
Wodonga              
Yarram       0.1 7.0   7.1
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 50.9     0.5 7.0   58.4

1956

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 0.4     0.5     0.9
Colac              
Ballarat 30.4           30.4
Bendigo 7.1           7.1
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 8.5           8.5
Wangaratta 0.5           0.5
Wodonga              
Yarram 0.4       7.2   7.6
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 46.9       7.2   54.1

1957

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 0.3     77.7     80.0
Colac              
Ballarat 8.6           8.6
Bendigo 5.2           5.2
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 4.0           4.0
Wodonga              
Yarram         22.1   22.1
Central Gippsland 5.0       2.0   7.0
Bairnsdale              
Total 23.1     77.7 24.1   124.9

1958

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 112.1     2.4     114.5
Colac              
Ballarat 10.8           10.8
Bendigo 5.2           5.2
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 23.7           23.7
Wodonga              
Yarram 0.3       14.0   14.0
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 152.1     2.4 14.0   168.5

1959

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 18.2           18.2
Colac 0.7           0.7
Ballarat 16.0           16.0
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla              
Alexandra 183.3           183.3
Wangaratta 23.7           23.7
Wodonga              
Yarram         14.0   14.0
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 241.9       14.0   255.9

1960 - 1969 Forests Commission Plantings

1960

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 50.3           50.3
Colac 28.6           28.6
Ballarat 69.3           69.3
Bendigo 5.1           5.1
Geelong 7.8           7.8
Benalla              
Alexandra 68.3     0.4     68.7
Wangaratta 13.4           13.4
Wodonga              
Yarram         59.3   59.3
Central Gippsland 5.4           5.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 248.2     0.4 59.3   307.9

1961

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 242.7           242.7
Colac              
Ballarat 1.2           1.2
Bendigo 1.1           1.1
Geelong 14.9           14.9
Benalla              
Alexandra 68.3           68.3
Wangaratta 6.8           6.8
Wodonga 1.6           1.6
Yarram         68.7   68.7
Central Gippsland 4.2           4.2
Bairnsdale              
Total 340.8       68.7   409.5

1962

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 335.8     64.7     400.5
Colac 50.6           50.6
Ballarat 25.6           25.6
Bendigo 3.0           3.0
Geelong 36.5           36.5
Benalla              
Alexandra 154.9           154.9
Wangaratta 44.9           44.9
Wodonga 353.3           353.3
Yarram 2.5       238.2   240.7
Central Gippsland 26.4           26.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 1033.5     64.7 238.2   1336.4

1963

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 426.7     29.7     456.4
Colac 72.5           72.5
Ballarat 38.1           38.1
Bendigo 7.0           7.0
Geelong 24.2           24.2
Benalla              
Alexandra 149.8           149.8
Wangaratta 291.1           291.1
Wodonga 271.3           271.3
Yarram 20.1       247.5   267.6
Central Gippsland 46.4           46.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 1347.2     29.7 247.5   1624.4

1964

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 43.7           43.7
Portland 581.9     52.8     634.7
Colac 84.0           84.0
Ballarat 29.7           29.7
Bendigo              
Geelong 19.5           19.5
Benalla 87.7           87.7
Alexandra 180.7           180.7
Wangaratta 179.3           179.3
Wodonga 213.7           213.7
Yarram 37.1       302.2   339.3
Central Gippsland 23.8           23.8
Bairnsdale              
Total 1481.1     52.8 302.2   1836.1

1965

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 32.6           32.6
Portland 587.9     57.1     645.0
Colac 72.1   12.4 2.4     86.9
Ballarat 54.6           54.6
Bendigo              
Geelong 18.6           18.6
Benalla 113.2           113.2
Alexandra 133.5           133.5
Wangaratta 264.1     0.6     264.7
Wodonga 33.0           33.0
Yarram 99.4   5.7   152.6   257.7
Central Gippsland 40.1           40.1
Bairnsdale              
Total 1449.1   18.1 60.1 152.6   1679.9

1966

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 52.8           52.8
Portland 341.8     11.6     353.4
Colac 60.6   7.4 5.3     73.3
Ballarat 242.9   0.9 7.7     251.5
Bendigo              
Geelong 34.7   0.9 2.7     38.3
Benalla 92.7           92.7
Alexandra 224.0           224.0
Wangaratta 595.4 0.3   5.8     601.5
Wodonga 227.9   2.4       230.3
Yarram 180.2   4.1 4.3 189.8   378.4
Central Gippsland 39.2   1.2       40.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 2092.2 0.3 16.9 37.4 189.8   2336.6

1967

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 47.1           47.1
Portland 772.2           772.2
Colac 71.3     2.5     73.8
Ballarat 196.8           196.8
Bendigo              
Geelong 63.2           63.2
Benalla 140.5   0.1       140.6
Alexandra 274.8           274.8
Wangaratta 474.4           474.4
Wodonga 433.9 0.6 3.3 2.6     440.4
Yarram 304.9   1.9   296.5   603.3
Central Gippsland 47.0           47.0
Bairnsdale              
Total 2826.1 0.6 5.3 5.1 296.5   3133.6

1968

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 105.2           105.2
Portland 1156.0     1.7     1157.7
Colac 114.4 4.5 22.2 1.6     142.7
Ballarat 226.2 2.6   0.6     229.4
Bendigo              
Geelong              
Benalla 447.0 4.9 5.5 9.3     466.7
Alexandra 342.3           342.3
Wangaratta 451.0 0.6   0.9     452.5
Wodonga 250.8           250.8
Yarram 304.3 0.4 10.8 1.6 192.0   509.1
Central Gippsland 24.8   6.4 0.9     32.1
Bairnsdale              
Total 3422.0 13.0 44.9 16.6 192.0   3688.5

1969

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 28.6           28.6
Portland 1472.4     137.1     1609.5
Colac 155.4           155.4
Ballarat 241.7   0.1 0.4     242.2
Bendigo 2.6           2.6
Geelong 343.9 0.7         344.6
Benalla 644.9 1.5 0.3       646.7
Alexandra 37.9           37.9
Wangaratta 595.2           595.2
Wodonga 642.3           642.3
Yarram 342.4 1.0   5.8 252.6   601.8
Central Gippsland 275.4     1.3     276.7
Bairnsdale              
Total 4782.7 3.2 0.4 144.6 252.6   5183.5

1970 - 1979 Forests Commission Plantings

1970

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 42.9           42.9
Portland 431.0           431.0
Colac 15.1           15.1
Ballarat 246.9           246.9
Bendigo 3.4           3.4
Geelong 228.8     0.1     228.9
Benalla 717.0     1.0     718.0
Alexandra 596.9   3.6 1.3     601.8
Wangaratta 633.9           633.9
Wodonga 649.8 7.4   0.5     657.7
Yarram 329.7       216.5   546.2
Central Gippsland 120.2           120.2
Bairnsdale              
Total 4015.6 7.4 3.6 2.9 216.5   4246.0

1971

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 33.2           33.2
Portland 628.7     2.4     631.1
Colac 32.6           32.6
Ballarat 347.9     4.3     352.2
Bendigo 1.3           1.3
Geelong 220.5           220.5
Benalla 789.1 4.1         793.2
Alexandra 615.9 5.3         621.2
Wangaratta 597.9   33.2 5.9     637.0
Wodonga 555.5 1.0 1.7       558.2
Yarram 309.9   3.1 9.4 257.4   579.8
Central Gippsland 101.7           101.7
Bairnsdale              
Total 4234.2 10.4 38.0 22.0 257.4   4562.0

1972

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 41.4           41.4
Portland 592.8     3.8     596.6
Colac 110.2           110.2
Ballarat 411.6 22.2   4.8     438.6
Bendigo 18.7           18.7
Geelong 200.8     2.8     203.6
Benalla 601.9 45.7 14.9 9.6     672.1
Alexandra 724.4 9.7 0.7 38.1     772.9
Wangaratta 488.4 11.6   18.3     518.3
Wodonga 304.5 37.1   12.1     353.7
Yarram 324.8 7.0   35.6 321.9   689.3
Central Gippsland 147.9 3.6   2.7     154.2
Bairnsdale              
Total 3967.4 136.9 15.6 127.8 321.9   4569.6

1973

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 33.0           33.0
Portland 566.0           566.0
Colac 61.7           61.7
Ballarat 341.3 1.9 7.6 1.8     352.6
Bendigo 25.9           25.9
Geelong 202.7     4.5     207.2
Benalla 555.7   36.9 1.1     593.7
Alexandra 410.9   25.3 10.0     446.2
Wangaratta 800.0     8.7     808.7
Wodonga 295.9           295.9
Yarram 188.6 22.6 0.3   279.7   491.2
Central Gippsland 229.1           229.1
Bairnsdale              
Total 3710.8 24.5 70.1 26.1 279.7   4111.2

1974

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 51.7           51.7
Portland 637.2 2.4   3.0     642.6
Colac 183.6     2.5     186.1
Ballarat 324.6 2.6 1.7 0.4     329.3
Bendigo 27.2           27.2
Geelong 215.7   1.8       217.5
Benalla 463.4     11.4     474.8
Alexandra 508.4 23.1   10.1     541.6
Wangaratta 595.5 19.1   6.7     621.3
Wodonga 214.1     2.7     216.8
Yarram 644.3     4.6 147.0   478.9
Central Gippsland 186.5           186.5
Bairnsdale              
Total 4052.2 47.2 3.5 41.4 147.0   4291.3

1975

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 42.9           42.9
Portland 1081.7           1081.7
Colac 97.6           97.6
Ballarat 458.8 0.6         459.4
Bendigo 9.7           9.7
Geelong 200.7           200.7
Benalla 655.4           655.4
Alexandra 422.2     14.0     436.0
Wangaratta 751.3 7.1   10.4     768.8
Wodonga 283.8     8.3     292.1
Yarram 644.3     4.6 147.0   795.9
Central Gippsland 199.4           199.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 4847.8 7.7   37.3 147.0   5039.8

1976

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 17.1           17.1
Portland 464.3           464.3
Colac 151.2     0.8     152
Ballarat 380.7           380.7
Bendigo 11.4           11.4
Geelong 258.8           258.8
Benalla 541.1           541.1
Alexandra 391.0     26.1     417.1
Wangaratta 677.3           677.3
Wodonga 492.0           492.0
Yarram 865.9       254.7   1120.6
Central Gippsland 146.3           146.3
Bairnsdale              
Total 4397.1     26.9 254.7   4678.7

1977

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 569.5           569.5
Colac 68.6           68.6
Ballarat 429.2           429.2
Bendigo 23.2           23.2
Geelong 202.2           202.2
Benalla 581.7           581.7
Alexandra 110.0     57.2     167.2
Wangaratta 763.3           763.3
Wodonga 519.0           519.0
Yarram 1179.7       350.2   1529.9
Central Gippsland 170.3           170.3
Bairnsdale              
Total 4616.7     57.2 350.2   5024.1

1978

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 574.2           574.2
Colac 79.7           79.7
Ballarat 429.2           429.2
Bendigo 23.2           23.2
Geelong 206.5           206.5
Benalla 563.7           563.7
Alexandra 372.5     47.7     420.2
Wangaratta 852.0           852.0
Wodonga 400.9           400.9
Yarram 647.5       372.1   1019.6
Central Gippsland 313.3           313.3
Bairnsdale              
Total 4462.7     47.7 372.1   4882.5

1979

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 628.0           628.0
Colac 79.7           79.7
Ballarat 332.6           332.6
Bendigo 21.5           21.5
Geelong 186.2           186.2
Benalla 214.8           214.8
Alexandra 372.5     47.7     420.2
Wangaratta 894.6           894.6
Wodonga 170.2           170.2
Yarram 572.8       348.8   921.6
Central Gippsland 157.4           157.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 3630.3     47.7 348.8   4026.8

1980 - 1989 Department Conservation Plantings

1980

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 505.6           505.6
Colac 61.1           61.1
Ballarat 328.0           328.0
Bendigo 28.3           28.3
Geelong 167.3           167.3
Benalla 309.2     0.3     309.5
Alexandra       4.5     4.5
Wangaratta 870.0           870.0
Wodonga 519.4           519.4
Yarram 548.2       245.0   793.2
Central Gippsland 221.1       8.8   229.9
Bairnsdale              
Total 3558.2     4.8 253.8   3816.8

1981

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 289.1           289.1
Colac 47.7           47.7
Ballarat 411.8     8.8     420.6
Bendigo 24.7           24.7
Geelong 1.5           1.5
Benalla 383.4           383.4
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 993.8           993.8
Wodonga 312.6           312.6
Yarram 766.4       237.2   1003.6
Central Gippsland 166.9           166.9
Bairnsdale              
Total 3397.9     8.8 237.2   3643.9

1982

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 481.0           481.0
Colac 122.0           122.0
Ballarat 330.7           330.7
Bendigo 4.8           4.8
Geelong 108.9           108.9
Benalla 565.6           565.6
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 1237.3           1237.3
Wodonga 573.5           573.5
Yarram 758.8       217.8   976.6
Central Gippsland 176.4       2.4   178.8
Bairnsdale 13.4            
Total 4372.4       220.2   4592.8

1983

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 331.9           331.9
Colac 75.5           75.5
Ballarat 191.6           191.6
Bendigo 33.7           33.7
Geelong 193.7   1.0       194.7
Benalla 415.5           415.5
Alexandra       2.2     2.2
Wangaratta 771.8   1.7       773.5
Wodonga 330.8     44.3     375.1
Yarram 326.9       129.0   455.9
Central Gippsland 99.1           99.1
Bairnsdale              
Total 2770.5   2.7 46.5 129.0   2948.7

1984

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 172.1           172.1
Colac 195.5           195.5
Ballarat 190.7           190.7
Bendigo 1.3           1.3
Geelong 407.4     0.4     407.8
Benalla 52.9           52.9
Alexandra 18.2           18.2
Wangaratta 469.5           469.5
Wodonga 571.8           571.8
Yarram 490.7       269.5   760.2
Central Gippsland 158.4           158.4
Bairnsdale              
Total 2728.5     0.4 269.5   2998.4

1985

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 359.9           359.9
Colac 211.6   10.0       221.6
Ballarat 110.9           110.9
Bendigo 23.5           23.5
Geelong 399.7   2.4       402.1
Benalla 102.7           102.7
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 1177.7           1177.7
Wodonga 460.7           460.7
Yarram 711.8       92.0   803.8
Central Gippsland 197.3           197.3
Bairnsdale              
Total 3755.8   12.4   92.0   3860.2

1986

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 305.8           305.8
Colac 175.4 0.6         176.0
Ballarat 176.9           176.9
Bendigo              
Geelong 79.9           79.9
Benalla 179.5           179.5
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 892.3     3.4     894.6
Wodonga 583.8   6.0 28.5     618.3
Yarram 596.6       130.3   726.9
Central Gippsland 100.3           100.3
Bairnsdale              
Total 3090.5 0.6 6.0 31.9 130.3   3259.3

1987

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 233.8           233.8
Colac 62.3   0.3       62.6
Ballarat 125.2           125.2
Bendigo 31.5           31.5
Geelong 89.3           89.3
Benalla 128.8           128.8
Alexandra       3.7     3.7
Wangaratta 801.1           801.1
Wodonga 479.3           479.3
Yarram 789.7       154.4   944.1
Central Gippsland 178.8           178.8
Bairnsdale              
Total 2919.8   0.3 3.7 154.4   3078.2

1988

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 386.2           386.2
Colac 291.0           291.0
Ballarat 175.1           175.1
Bendigo 32.8           32.8
Geelong 275.7           275.7
Benalla 252.9           252.9
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 753.4           753.4
Wodonga 755.6           755.6
Yarram 1013.6       193.8   1207.4
Central Gippsland 22.5           22.5
Bairnsdale              
Total 3958.8       193.8   4152.6

1989

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 544.6           544.6
Colac 164.4           164.4
Ballarat 201.6           201.6
Bendigo 20.4           20.4
Geelong 1.7           1.7
Benalla 27.8           27.8
Alexandra 7.9           7.9
Wangaratta 631.1           631.1
Wodonga 324.3           324.3
Yarram 1009.9       249.7   1259.6
Central Gippsland              
Bairnsdale              
Total 2933.7       249.7   3183.4

1990 - 1992 Department Conservation Plantings

1990

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 801.3           801.3
Colac 255.0           255.0
Ballarat 90.7           90.7
Bendigo 18.2           18.2
Geelong 95.7           95.7
Benalla 11.4           11.4
Alexandra 8.6           8.6
Wangaratta 956.7           956.7
Wodonga 231.1           231.1
Yarram 707.0     1.4 159.5   867.9
Central Gippsland 280.0           280.0
Bairnsdale              
Total 3455.7     1.4 159.5   3616.6

1991

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 494.1           494.1
Colac 170.0           170.0
Ballarat 87.3           87.3
Bendigo 19.0           19.0
Geelong 77.0           77.0
Benalla 83.0           83.0
Alexandra 14.4           14.4
Wangaratta 728.3           728.3
Wodonga 199.7           199.7
Yarram 630.5       150.2   780.7
Central Gippsland 786.9           786.9
Bairnsdale              
Total 3290.2       150.2   3440.4

1992

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham              
Portland 518.2           518.2
Colac 148.2           148.2
Ballarat 86.5           86.5
Bendigo 14.5           14.5
Geelong 77.6           77.6
Benalla 4.2           4.2
Alexandra              
Wangaratta 392.3           392.3
Wodonga 175.4           175.4
Yarram 247.1       8.0   255.1
Central Gippsland         26.0   26.0
Bairnsdale              
Total 1664       34.0   1698.0

Totals Pre: Victorian Plantation Corporation

Region P.radiata P.Nigra Ps. Menz. Other Conifers Eucalypts Other Species Total
Horsham 572.2     1.5     573.7
Portland 17699.9 2.4   450.7     18153.0
Colac 3670.9 139.4 320.4 180.4     4311.1
Ballarat 7698.2 69.6 10.4 40.7     7818.9
Bendigo 550.6     0.2     550.8
Geelong 4669.0 0.7 6.8 25.2     4701.7
Benalla 9726.7 56.2 57.7 34.0     9874.6
Alexandra 6351.1 46.9 49.7 260.9     6708.6
Wangaratta 20784.7 85.7 120.7 207.1     21198.2
Wodonga 11831.5 46.1 13.4 99.0     11990.0
Yarram 15207.2 31.0 38.2 65.8 7151.3   22493.5
Central Gippsland 4712.1 3.6 7.6 4.9 94.0   4822.2
Bairnsdale 13.4           13.4
Total 103487.5 481.6 624.9 1370.4 7245.3   113209.7

 

 

History

1888: First State P.Nigra planting in Ballarat-Macedon region.

1900: First State P.Radiata planting in Ballarat region.

1910: First State small plantings of P. Radiata in Geelong and Bendigo Regions.

1921: First State P.Nigra and other conifers planted in Wangaratta Region (Beechworth/Bright?).

1927: First State P.radiata plantings in Wangaratta District.

1929: First State conifers planted in Colac District.

1929: Biggest State Planting year for Bendigo Region (37.7ha of Radiata Pine).

1931: First State P.radiata plantings in Colac District. 80 hectares of pine species established in one year.

1936: Wood Pulp Agreement Act signed between APM and State of Victioria.

1937: First State P.radiata plantings in Alexandra Region (Narbethong?).

1937: Maryvale Pulp Mill (central Gippsland opens).

1944: First small scale State Eucalyptus plantings (0.1ha) in Yarram district.

1946: Commencement of E.regnans plantations in Strzelecki Ranges by Forestry Commission

1950's Australian Paper Manufacturers (APM) and Forestry Commission establish tree farms, mainly concentrating on exotic pines, which were relatively scarce in Australia, backed by eucalypt plantations as close as possible to the companys mills. In Gippsland Radiata pine was preferred.

1950 April: APM Board decided that planting of pines on freehold land should begin. By end of July, about 240 hectares had been sown establishing tree farms at Longford and Stockdale. Introduction of Lowther tree planting machines. Able to plant 16 000 young pines in a day. Next plantations at Flynn Creek, Maryvale and Silver Creek.

1950: First building equipment to Myrtleford pine mill.

1951: Forestry Commission plants P.radiata in South West of Victoria.

1951: APM Forests Pty Ltd formed. This an APM subsidiary where calls paid would be tax deductible in APM's hands. This specifically applied to encourage forestry companies to grow plantations. Company was writing off its forestry costs against other profits. If trees grew well, the company would be able to capitalise some of the costs of forest establishment. Chairman: RB Jeffreys. Board Members: JG Wilson, JD Brookes, AJ Hedly and WG Brookes. DH Alexander (sec), KF Wraith (Accountant). Operated in two parts. Wood procurement under Hedley and forest development under Chandler. Concentrated in Gippsland but also plantations established in NSW and Qld.

1952: Softwood Holdings begins Mt Gambier S.A. F Lindsay and Dick Lemessurier foundation shareholders.

1952: Summer. Hi-Ball introduced by APM. A steel ball, 2.44 meters in diametre, made of welded steel plate, 18 millimetres thick. A 150 millimetre steel shaft, inserted through the ball, was attached to two steel cables at each end. The cables were then hooked to two powerful tractors about 40 metres apart. As they moved through the forests everything in the U-shape formed by the cables was pulled over. Trees up to 90 centimetres in diameter could be uprooted and up to 24 hectares of bush could be cleared in a day - five times as fast as pushing trees over with a tractor. Hi-Ball cleared some 810 hectares at Longford in the summer of 1952. Once the clearing was done planting began. Light planes were used for spreading fertiliser and forest inspections were made by helicopter.

1955: APM recognised by Taxation Dept as a primary producer.

1955: July - APM planted its one millionth tree. 'Trees Forever' became a slogan in the company.

1958: First plantings of large scale radiata pine in the South West Victoria. First time plantings top 100 hectares in any region in the state.

1960's: Early 60's pine was introduced and established as a structural building material. Prior to this it was used primarily for low quality case timber.

1961: Forests (Wood Pulp Agreement) Act. Granted APM a lease of 8731 acres of land in the northern Strzeleckis in the Parishes of Bulga, Callignee, Jeeralang and Jumbuk. Catchments comprised mainly of Traralgon Creek, Jeeralang Creek and Middle Creek. Act set up because; 1939 fires decimated forests under 1936 Wood Pulp Agreement Act. APM had to obtain an agreement with the Forest Commission to source much of its pulpwood from outside of the agreed Forest Area at considerably increased cost to the company. "In order to meet the company's requirements of pulpwood the Commission and the company have surveyed the resources available and have agreed upon the necessity of 3 principle courses of action, namely -

(a) the extension of the said forest area

(b) further joint research into silvilcuture

(c) for the purposes of establishing plantations and replacing some of the resources of pulpwood lost to the company since the commencement of the Wood Pulp Agreement 1936, the leasing to the company of certain areas of State forest in the eastern Strzelecki ranges (being the lands described in the form of lease set out in the schedule hereto) which are at present unproductive".

1961: In 1961 the state government established a programme of softwood plantings throughout Victoria.

1961: First small plantings in Wodonga Region.

1964: First plantings in Benalla Region.

1966: Wood Pulp Agreement Act 1966: According to LB Williams 'The Forests (Wood Pulp Agreement) Act 1966 "To help overcome this deficiency the 1966 Act lays down the procedure to be adopted for the leasing of Commission land to the company for the growing of trees for pulpwood. This should assist the company develop an additional reserve of high grade pulpwood - particularly Mt Ash. At the present time the company leases from the Commission about 8700 acreas of land in the eastern Strzelecki Ranges. Terms of this lease require the company to establish trees in the plantable area contained therein over a period of 16 years. Since 1961 more than 2000 acres have actually been established. It is anticipated that a further area of about 12000 acres will be made available in the Middle Creek and East Morwell river basins. This area abuts the current lease area and would in effect be an extension thereof".

1966: Softwood Plantations Loan Scheme established. In 1966 the Victorian government established the Softwoods Plantations Loan Scheme which provided loans to landholders for pine plantation establishment. By 1984 over 8000 hectares of plantations had been established throughout Victoria by 449 landholders with assistance from the scheme. The scheme provided loan monies up to $8000 per property to a maximum of 40 hectares or 200 hectares.

1966: Land (Plantation Areas) Act.

1968: Biggest State Planting year for Horsham Region (105.2ha of Radiata Pine).

1969: Biggest State Planting year for Victoria (5183.5 ha of Radiata Pine).

1969: Biggest State Planting year for Portland Region (1472.4 ha of Radiata Pine).

1970 October: Millionth acre of softwood plantation in Australia established by Australian Forestry Council in NSW at Hampton near Lithgow.

1971: Biggest State Planting year for Benalla Region (789.1 ha of Radiata Pine).

1972: Biggest State Planting year for Alexandra Region (724.4ha of Radiata Pine).

1974 May10: Submission by Karl Liffman, a final year Burnley student, to the Land Conservation Council after he had accidently discovered the Victorian Forestry Department's plan to convert one fifth of the Wombat State Forest, ie all of the forest from Blackwood to Mount Macedon into a pinus radiata plantation.

Dear sir,

Wombat State Forest

With utmost urgency we wish to draw your attention to the critical changes that would occur to the abovementioned State Forest, if the planting of softwood species were instigated, on account of the irrefutable evidence resulting from Pinus Radiata plantings in the Ballarat-Creswick State Forest where the Pinus growth and seeding have created a weed problem.

For this and the following reasons, the Forest Commission's policy to convert 33,900 acres of the 181,900 acre Wombat State Forest to softwood, is detrimental to the continued ecological balance of the forest:

1. Destruction of the native vegetation in plantation clearing operations would upset the micro-environments of many valuable flora and fauna.

2. The planting of softwood, e.g. Pinus species, in a natural forest area would create a weed problem in the adjacent forest because;

a. Seed dispersal within existing native vegetation would proliferate and extend softwoods into valuable hardwood regions.

b. Unfavourable competition for nutrition would render softwoods a strong competitor against native endemic vegetation.

c. When competing for light with native vegetation, the introduced softwood would kill off the floristically rish forest floor.

d. The acidic, phenolic litter of softwoods suppress the continued growth and propagation of native growth on the forest floor.

e. The growth of "foreign" softwoods would create an unaesthetic sight in untouched forest land and would be in direct conflict with "Aim of Management (viii) ref. "Wombat State Forest" 2/74 of the Trentham District Management Plan which states . . . "provision for the scenic and recreational requirements of the community, and the maintenance of suitable habitat for wildlife where this is considered practicable and desirable".

This submission to the LCC is:

1. AGAINST conversion of any area of the Wombat State Forest to softwood or imported vegetation not endemic to the area. This includes Pinus species.

2. FOR conservation of existing native vegetation in the Wombat State Forest.

3. FOR expansion and taking of additional Crown Land, e.g. the township of Barry's Reef, which is already cleared, to widen the existing boundaries of the Wombat State Forest.

4. AGAINST reduction in the existing size of the Wombat State Forest.

We suggest that as the building industry is so dependent upon future softwood growth, it should assist financially in the purchasing of cleared grazing land to grow the necessary timber.

1975: Biggest State Planting year for Ballarat Region (458.8 ha of Radiata Pine).

1975: Second Biggest State Planting year for Victoria (5039.8 ha of Radiata Pine).

1975 Feb 7: Federal softwood inquiry conducted by the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation, is in progress. Aust Financial Review.

1977: Biggest State Planting year for Yarram Softwood Region (1179.7 ha of Radiata Pine).

1977: Third Biggest State Planting year for Victoria (5024.1 ha of Radiata Pine).

1977 August 3: Barramunga woman complains to Otway Shire Council over pine plantations. 3 Herald.

1977 August 6: Victorian Sawmillers Association recommends 30% cut in pine production because of a slump in housing industry. Age. 1978:

1977 June 22: Colac Field Naturalist Club complain about Associated Kiln Driers (Colac) over recent softwood activity in the Otways. Herald.

1978: Highest planting year for eucalpyts in the Strzeleckis @372.1 hectares

1978: Biggest State Planting year for Central Gippsland Region (313.3 ha of Radiata Pine).

1978 June: The Federal Minister for Health, Mr Hunt, intervened in the controversy involving a possible link between a common weed-killer and human birth deformities. Mr Hunt ordered a full-scale investigation into the herbicide 2,4,5-T by the National Health and Medical Research Council. The move follows an outcry by parents and medical experts in Queensland, NSW and Victoria. It was alleged that the use of the chemical may cause gross abnormalities in babies including anencephaly (absence of brain) and spina bifida (an abnormality of the spine).

1978: Yarram area, South Gippsland, Victoria: State government appointed 12 man committee to probe child abnormalities and birth defects in the Yarram area in South Gippsland. Committee probed the use of 24 D and 245 T in the Yarram area. Both herbicides are poisonous and it is estimated that between 20 and 40 grams is sufficient to kill a person. In Australia 245 T can legally contain 0.1 parts per million of a contaminant known as dioxin which is regarded by Dutch scientists as the most poisonous substance in existence. The Yarram area was heavily covered with the two sprays used to eradicate noxious weeds, ragwort and blackberry in 1975-6. Between June, 1975, and May 1976, in the area 4 children died at birth, or soon after, and four others were born with major abnormalities and still-births. Age 22/3/78. Many of these chemicals were also used in the area for the establishment of pine plantations.

1981: July 9 - ACF, Conservation Council of Victoria and Native Forests Action Council in united opposition to the Land Conservation Council's proposed doubling of area under pine plantations in north east Victoria. Age.

1981: November - Senate Standing Committee on Trade and Commerce released its report on 'Australia's Forestry and Forest Products Industries' finds that pine plantations are currently excessive. Colac Herald?

1981: Nov 16 - LCC Ovens Softwood area final recommendations released, recommending 13,700 ha for pine plantations: Many disappointed. Local ALP candidates see this as an election issue. *2,3 Chronicle-Despatch Wangaratta.

1982: Biggest State Planting year for Wangaratta Region (1237.3 ha of Radiata Pine).

1982: Jan 11 - Minister for Forests (Austin) announces go ahead for 5,800 hectare pine plantation in north east Victoria over next 4 years. *3 Chronical -Despatch Wangaratta.

1982: Jan 22 - Senate Standing Committee report tabled 'Australia's Forestry and Forest Products Industries' - says area under pine plantations is excessive. *3 Chronicle-Despatch Wangaratta.

1983: Jan 5 - ACF and farmers want the government to honour its election promise that there will be no further clearing of native forests for pine plantations, especially in north east Victoria. *3 Border Morning Mail.

1984: No More Pines Campaign in Otways.

1984: Biggest State Planting year for Geelong Region (407.4ha of Radiata Pine).

1985: November - Orchardists complain about Velpar spary drift in the Stanley Plateau region by a DCFL aerial application of Velpar.

1986: March - Joan Kirner Minister of Conservation Forests and Land bans aerial spraying of Velpar on pine plantations on the Stanley Plateau.

1986: March 24 - Vic government is to double its allocation of softwoods to Bowater Scott company from plantations in the north east of the state. Govt is spending $5 million to buy 4000 ha for this purpose and no native forest will be cleared: conservationists say the agreement is 'clouded in secrecy'. *13 Age.

1986: Apr? - The first long term licence for the removal of sawlogs from state softwood plantations has been awarded to Victree (Stawell) Pty Ltd after a public tender.

1986: July 17 - Minister for Conservation Forests and Lands (Kirner) agreement last April to double Bowater Scott's softwood allocation 'cannot be met without clearing of native vegetation' according to documents from DCFL obtained under FOI legislation against Labor party policy. *13 Age.

1987: The Victorian timber industry strategy sets a target of 125 000 hectares of pine plantations by 1996, the figure needed to satisfy about seven long-term Government supply contracts with companies such as Bowater Scott and APM. The areas where the Government planned to buy land for new trees were broadly around existing plantations in the Strezleckis, north-east Victoria in the Ovens Valley and Upper Murray, the Otways and around Portland.

1987: VFF land use committee Alex Arbuthnot said in April 1987: "Farmers will be outraged to learn that good agricultural land is being bought up for pines". His comments were an understatement. Uproar erupted in the bush . . . In early 1987, conservationists began to oppose the spread of pine plantations on the steep slopes of the Strzlecki Ranges in South Gippsland, claiming forestry workers were not following their own guidelines and polluting streams with soil and rubbish.

1987 June: To placate the environmentalists, the Government planned to phase out clearing of native forest on Crown Land for softwood production by June, 1987. This meant it had to look elsewhere to reach its target of 125 000 hectares of softwood plantations by 1996. At the time, there was only 91,300 ha of variable age, state-owned pine forests in Victoria in eight management areas. To find the other 33,700 ha of future forest land, the Government decided to buy 'marginal' farmland. The department bought land until it had 98,500 ha planted by March, 1988.

1987: Big campaign by locals to stop radiata pine establishment in the southern slopes of the Strezlecki Ranges. Yarram united against the Pines.

1988: Biggest State Planting year for Colac Region (291 ha of Radiata Pine).

1988: Biggest State Planting year for Wodonga Region (755.6 ha of Radiata Pine).

1988: Community concern in North East Vic rose over the next year, reaching a high point in early 1988 when Tallangatta Valley farmers led by Stuart Morant blockaded CFL contractors employed to clear a 607 ha dairy farm bought by the department for plantation pines.

1988: Tallangatta Valley declared a pine free zone. Local landuse agencies did not want pine.

OTWAY RANGES: 'No More Pines' Campaigns active throughout Otways Region. A case in the appeals tribunal where local Otway council was not giving permits for pine . . . " Nevertheless such strong feeling was generated against plantations and the Tribunal was swamped by claims about the adverse impact of pine plantations, and refused to overturn the councils initial ruling".

STRATHBOGIE RANGES (VIC) Late 80's: Warrenbayne Logging Committee formed due to problems associated with pine plantations including associated long term health effects. Environmental Impact Study was supposed to be done, but never released by authorities. Health problems in community started emerging around 1987 with the local tennis club, which included a male and a female genetic mutation involving the gonads. The girl also had a bone cancer at 9 years of age and the removal of precancerous ovaries at 13 years. Two other girls and a boy develop late onset epilepsy. Another male member was born extremely premature. Girl developed myeloid leaukemia and passed away, age 24. Residents feel that these issues are the tip of the health iceberg. Apparently in the 1970's the Forestry Commission had used ROGOR a close relative of 245 T in establishing pine plantations.

1990 March: Victorian State Government plantation sharefarming scheme. State Government plans to establish 6000 hecatres of additional softwood plantation in Central and South Gippsland to meet the needs of the timber indusry by 1996. (Weekly Times 7/3/90). 1990: March - First joint venture farm forestry scheme between a farmer and Myrtleford timber processor Australian Forest Industries (AFI) signed. (28/3/90).

1990 April: NORTH EAST FORESTS (VIC) Spread of Pine needle blight fungus makes Dept of Conservation, Forests and Lands aerially spray plantations with Copper Oxychloride. Fungicides were the only known way to kill pine needle blight spores. Pine Needle Blight first identified in New Zealand in 1964. Disease includes plantations around Koetong Plateau, Ovens Valley and Warrenbayne districts. Spraying concentrated in the two worst areas, Benalla and the north-east. 2600 hecatres badly affected. Outbreak also found in Otways. (Age 2/4/90). Locals not told of spraying regimes even though schools were located in Warrenbayne valley and residents use creek for water.

1990 May: State Government is likely to reduce the amount of land it buys for pine trees after an outcry by farmers about the policy. . . Farmers and rural communites have criticised the Government policy of buying private land for pine plantations, saying it had caused the decline of some rural communities. The also said DCE was a bad neighbour allowing weeds and vermin to flourish . . . Timber Industry Strategy set a target of 125 000 hectares of Government pine plantations by 1996. A report on the impact of state pine plantations chaired by Councillor Pam Robinson, for the shire of Violet Town, was launched yesterday. (Age 11/5/90 p10).

1990 May: State pine plantations to be sold. Premier Joan Kirner admitted this week the pine plantations would be chopped. The sale is expected to earn the Government at least $200 million, but that could double if land is sold as well as cutting rights . . . The Liberal Party claimed that the Government had planned a $300 million fire sale, regardless of legal consequences. The Government has 109 000 ha of pines, more than half of which is less than 15 years . . . Department Forest Division acting director Kevin Wareing confirmed the Government had agreed in principle to sell the pines. Mr Wareing said a time table had not been made for the sale . . . John Pye of the Anti-pines Alliance said: 'A lot better things could have been spent with taxpayers money rather than subsidise the softwood industry. The most recent farmer protest about pine plantations was this month at Rose River, where farmers blockaded departmental officers. (Weekly Times 29/5/90. p5).

1990 August: "The timber industry strategy, adopted three years ago, set a target of 125 000 hectares, the figure needed to satisfy about seven long-term Government supply contracts with companies such as Bowater Scott and APM. The areas where the Government planned to buy land for new trees were broadly around existing plantations in the Strezleckis, north-east Victoria in the Ovens Valley and Upper Murray, the Otways and around Portland. The first opposition came from conservation groups opposed to clearing native bush for an exotic monocultural crop. The second wave of protest was from farmers, as the Government started to buy farmland on the open market, taking advantage of depressed prices. Mrs Kirner, who was then Minister for Conservation, Forests and Lands and oversaw the timber industry strategy, was faced with farmers ripping new seedlings out of the ground. But she also needed more pine timber to meet supply contracts with industry. She appointed a panel to look into concerns in the rural community and to see if there was a more acceptable planting program. The report, in May this year, set a new target of 120 000 hectares and a shift towards share farming with private owners . . . A departmental spokesman said yesterday it would take six months to study how the pine estate should be sold, whether it should be the rights to the timber, or the land and the timber, or parts of both. (Age 30/8/90 p10).

1990 September: ' . . . But the (Timber Industry) strategy, which followed two years of public consultation, was the genesis of a curse which was to plague the State Government. It was established to build up the state's timber production and forest management to fulfill contracts the Government had to supply private milling companies . . . Native forests had been used to meet Victoria's hardwood timber needs and reduce spending on imports but it also caused a massive drain on hardwood reserves. The environmental movement was aware of this and had lobbied to stop clearing of native forests. To placate the environmentalists, the Government planned to phase out clearing of native forest on Crown Land for softwood production by June, 1987. This meant it had to look elsewhere to reach its target of 125 000 hectares of softwood plantations by 1996. At the time, there was only 91,300 ha of variable age, state-owned pine forests in Victoria in eight management areas. To find the other 33,700 ha of future forest land, the Government decided to buy 'marginal' farmland. The department bought land until it had 98,500 ha planted by March, 1988. But its objective in buying 'marginal' land went astray. In April 1987, it bought a 1639ha Gifford property in Gippsland for $2 million - believed to be a record for the area. CFL also bought TV cook Peter Russell-Clarke's 500 ha property at Hotspur near Portland - considered to be prime grazing country - for $700 000 in late 1987. Farmers began to become annoyed - they had no hope of bidding against a seemingly bottomless pit of miney in state coffers. The then chairman of the VFF land use committee Alex Arbuthnot said in April 1987: "Farmers will be outraged to learn that good agricultural land is being bought up for pines".

His comments were an understatement. Uproar erupted in the bush . . . In early 1987, conservationists began to oppose the spread of pine plantations on the steep slopes of the Strzlecki Ranges in South Gippsland, claiming forestry workers were not following their own guidelines and polluting streams with soil and rubbish. Community concern rose over the next year, reaching a high point in early 1988 when Tallangatta Valley farmers led by Stuart Morant blockaded CFL contractors employed to clear a 607 ha dairy farm bought by the department for plantation pines. The local community, politicians and the VFF, concerned not only about using prime farmland for pines but also social dislocation, met with Mrs Kirner on June 6, 1988, to express their views about the effects of the Government program. Under pressure, Mrs Kirner announced two weeks later an end to clearing pending the outcome of a socio-economic study on the Government's softwood and hardwood expansion program. In November 1988, Mrs Kirner announced the State Plantations Impact Study by Melbourne University's Centre for Farm Planning and Land Management. A steering committee representing the major industry groups was also formed with Cr Pam Robinson, of the Violet Town shire as Chairman. Farmers maintained pressure on the Government, taking more militant action against planting pines on farmland in June and July 1989. Hundreds of protesters gathered at government bought farms at Strathbogie and Hotspur to vent their anger by pulling up pine seedlings. Meanwhile, the steering committee did not agree entirely with the study team's report and began a further community consultation process, producing an issues and options paper in August 1989. The Steering Committee's report was released in May 1990.

1991 February: Victorian State Government about to decide how to sell pine plantations. Report written by CS First Boston (merchant banker) outling options on how plantations will be privatised. - Originally a price tag of $1 billion was thought to be the asking price, that has been reduced somewhat to about $300 million. "Once a decision is made about what, precisely is to be sold and how, the assets have to be formerly assessed by the Valuer-General . . . His valuation then becomes the reserve price . . . Dr Griffin says the department has already received strong expressions of interest from both forest-products companies and from financial institutions . . . One option to sweeten the sale would be to retain the land and just sell the rights to cut timber. This was done in New Zealand because much of the land was subject to claims from Maori descendants. The downside, from the Exchequer point of view, is that the modification would slash about $100 million from the sale proceeds. Plantation land sells for between $2000 and $4000 a hectare; the cutting rights alone $1000 to $3000. (Age18/2/91 p15).

1991 March: Letter to the Age from Jenny Barnett, vice president, Victorian National Parks Association. " . . . Many plantations (eg around Bright) were established before the Code of Forest Practices in areas in which such plantations would not be permitted today, for instance, on slopes greater than 30 degrees. If these are sold, what measures would be taken to protect environmental values? Some plantations were established within extensive areas of public native forest, such as the Loch Valley near Noojee. Selling such strategically located public land is undesirable. Additional management costs may be incurred on surrounding land, such as for weed control and fire management. . . - Age 11/3/91. p10.

1991 May: The Department of Conservation and Environment has called on the Valuer-General's office to give a second valuation of the state's pine plantations . . . Although the government has remained tightlipped about the contents of the CS First Boston report, DCE sources told the Weekly Times last January the pines could be valued as low as $110 million. There was speculation last August the softwood plantations could be worth as much as $1 billion. (Weekly Times 8/5/91).

1992 June: Leigh Devine, a landholder on the Strathbogie plateau, bulldozes 40 hecatres of pine (70 000 trees). Pines were established without a shire permit, even though the regional conservation department said that one wasn't necessary. (Age 30/6/92).

1992 December: S13 amendment. Small scale forest plantations no longer will have to meet strict permit controls under a proposed State Government planning amendment. The changes will affect plantations of 40ha or less outside the metropolitan region and Melbourne's outer suburbs. Permits will no longer be required unless the plantation is within 100m of land zones for residential, business or industrial use or supports native vegetation more than 10 years old. (Weekly Times 2/12/92).

1993 March: Victoria's 114 000 ha of publicly owned pine plantations transferred to Victorian Plantation Corporation in July. (Weekly Times 10/3/93 p6).

1993 November: - Barry Traill forests campaigner, Conservation Council of Victoria - pro pine letter - Age 18/11/93.

1994 March: BALLARAT (VIC): Residents, local Landcare Nursery at Creswick and 800 square kilometres of land were 'accidently' sprayed with Hexazinone in March 1994 by Victorian Plantations Corporation. (The Age 25/3/94).

1994 April: Spill of the insecticide pyrethum at Tonganah, near Scottsdale Tasmania. Killed massive numbers of fish, eels and freshwater crayfish. 3 years after the spill river health better but a lack of blackfish and freshwater crayfish a concern (Mercury 5/7/97).

1995 June: The Victorian State Government is close to clinching a deal worth up to $500 million with a major investment bank for a fast-grown tree plantation in Victoria's green triangle region. Natural Resources Minister Geoff Coleman has asked his department to identify a site for a plantation of pine trees and blue gums of up to 200 000 ha in the state's far south west. It follows a meeting with German bank representatives in Melbourne on Friday, and is expected the project will attract Europeans seeking to invest in environmentally friendly ventures . . . Herald Sun 13/6/95 p22.

1995 June: A medieval legal concept could be adapted in Victoria to give greater security to tree plantation investors. Profit a prendre is a licensing system which gives investors the right to harvest from landowners. In the case of tree crops, ownership of timber would be given to licensees after harvesting. The concept was adapted in Tasmania in 1990, New Zealand in 1983 and more recently in New South Wales. . . It could include issuing shares or stocks, registering forest rights on the landowner's title through the Title's Office, including mortgages, charges and transfers. Landowners could be held legally responsible for trees damaged by poor farming practices . . . Herald Sun 22/6/95 p21.

1995 July: Release of Australia's Plantations by Judy Clark for Environment Victoria.

1995 August: "At least 3 new pulp mills and paper mills should be constructed in Australia and the woodchipping of native forests brought to a halt, according to a Federal Government - funded study to be released today. Australia's Plantations: Industry, Employment, Environment was prepared by economic consultant, Ms Judy Clark, with a grant of $166 000 from the Commonwealth Department of the Environment and commissioned by Environment Victoria. The study calls for a rapid shift towards an industry based on plantation forests, with the goal of preserving native forests for 'future generations' . . . According to the study, Australia now has more than 1 million hectares of plantations. In 1994, Australian plantations supplied 9.6 million cubic metres of wood, 80% of which was processed here . . . Sydney Morning Herald 25/8/95 p6.

1995 October: The Victorian Plantation Corporation, Australia's third-largest tree grower, has reported a 72% jump in profit to $20.8 million for 1994-5. The company, one of the few owned by Victorian taxpayers which is not earmarked for sale by the Kennett Government, has tripled its dividend payout to the state budget to $12 million. Operating revenue rocketed from $29.7 million to $41.5 million as wood prices rose and the company lifted log sales by 32% to 1.52 million cubic metres . . . The company revalued its plantations by $12 million to $214.8 million over the year . . . (Herald Sun 5/10/95 p61).

1996 January: Timber 2000 formed by 350 farmers, will research and promote bluegum farming in Victoria's far-western Greater Green Triangle. Chairman, a fourth generation Nareen sheep farmer, Mr Alan Edgar, says early indications show that returns from growing and marketing bluegums for the Japanese paper market may be four to five times higher than growing wool. . . Timber 2000 members want to plant at least 1000 hectares of bluegums this year and 80000 hectares within 10 years. Bluegums are ready to harvest within 8 years of planting and timber 2000 hopes to produce 500,000 tonnes of woodchips a year from 10000 hectares . . . trees would help prevent soil erosion and salinity and would shelter animals. Age 15/1/96 p4

1996: STRATHBOGIE RANGES (VIC): Early in 1996 at the meeting of Murray/Goulburn Water Catchment Board another request to release Environmental Impact Study from late eighties. Mounting concern in community about alarming percentage of health problems in children born in Warrenbayne coinciding with the early spraying of wattles, to allow pines to compete. The community was not notified of the toxicity of the spraying regimes nor informed of the toxicity of the sprays. Asthma is prevalent amongst residents and is an ongoing concern with pine dust. Problems identified by locals included: -that the acidic nature of pine trees could present problems to local farmers. -changes to water run off, water tables and increased silting of local creeks. -effect on wildlife (eg increased clamydia in koalas was a major concern). -erosion within pines by the maze of roads and the fire breaks on very steep hills and into water catchments. -lack of planning of access routes to the pines and the inadequacy of many shire roads to carry large log trucks.

1996 March: Timber 2000 . . . Alan Edgar and wife Margaret have a fixed, $28 a tonne harvest contract for their 20ha of trees with tissue maker Kimberly-Clark. (fast growing Tasmanian blue gum - the vital base used in making soft, strong toilet tissue) . . . The greening of the south-west began in 1988 with trial plantings by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Mount Gambier. . . Eight years later these trees are 7 metres tall and their trunk girth is an average 23cm - better than traditional pines. The blue gum can be cut first at 10 years, then coppiced and harvested again 8 years later but pines take 30 years or more to mature before logging. Papermaker Kimberly-Clark has picked up on the CSIRO research. It spent a reported $180 million converting a section of its pulp mill at naerby Millicent to hardwood processing and in 1990 began its own local plantation - KCA were spending $30 million a year importing hardwood pulp from Portugal - ironically eucalypts. With help from the Department of Primary Industries, the company sewed 6000 ha of trees on private farms either side of the Victorian-South Australian border. Some 3000 ha of farmland is already planted with 950 ha more to be sewn this year . . . The SA Government has signed another agreement with Japanese trading house Mitsui to plant blue gums within a 100km radius of the Victorian town of Portland. It is planned that the trees will generate 200,000 tonnes of woodchips exports from the port within a decade - hoping for pulp mill (veneer/plywood factory). "our only problem is the cost incurred in planting trees. Some of our farmers find it hard to fund the $1000 a hectare needed to buy seedlings and fertilise the soil". (Herald Sun 23 March 1996. p9)

1996 May: Farmers hope to join forces with a forestry firm and establish large-scale gum tree plantations on Victorian farms by 2000. A farmers co-operative and North Forest Products hope to plant more than 40,000 hectares of blue gum in south-eastern and western Victoria. One option being considered would see farmers growing the trees on their properties and selling the mature timber to North Forest Products for paper and woodchips. Company market development manager Chris Oldfield said about 100 ha of blue-gum had already been planted in the region for an early feasibility study . . . Timber 2000 executive member Harry Youngman, who has planted the trees on 60 hectares of his property said "benefits to farmers would include added shelter and more efficient water utilisation, as well as the broader environmental benefits of more trees" . . . feasibility study expected to be completed by October. (Herald Sun p 58 21/5/96).

1996 June: STREZLECKI RANGES. (VIC): Public attention focussing on Amcor's decision to want to clear 2000 hectares of native bush also gets people focussed on current plantation harvesting in the area. Jeeralang Creek was a particulary terrible example of plantation logging gone horribly wrong.

1996 July: Plantation forests will be encouraged in Victoria by new legislation which protects the tree owner even if the land the tree grows on changes hands. Under the Forestry Rights Bill, announced by the Conservation Minister, Mrs Marie Tehan, registered plantations will be protected as a covenant over land. Age 9/7/96 p4.

1996 October: Vic Govt announces that it will spend $5 million to help triple the number of private forest plantations across the state by 2010. The $5 million will be matched by the Federal Government. State Agricultural Minister Pat MacNamara announces 16 member taskforce to oversee the development. VAFI forest operations manager John Wright said another 500,000 hectares of land would be planted with hardwoods and softwoods. . . The director of Environment Victoria, Ms Linda Parland said the industry should better manage existing plantations before talking of expansion. "It's premature to be talking about trebling plantations at this stage when we have a stockpile of plantation wood that is not being used at the moment. Some plantations are 80 to 100 years old" she said. (Age p6 22/10/96).

1996 November: Upper Murray Catchment Farm Tree Group concerned about state government handing over 115 000 hecatres of public land to Victorian Plantation Corporation. Land near Koetong, near Tallangatta had been given over to VPC making local council environmentally reponsible "The shire hasn't got the resources to police the VPC's harvesting, the CFA don't want to be responsible for firefighting in 17,000 hectares of pines and we are worried that we are going to lose an important recreation resource" a spokeswoman Ms Lyn Coulston said. Chief Executive of Towong Shire Council, Mr Gary Cecil, said the council did not have the resources to monitor environmental standards in the corporations plantations or to fix the potholes created by the corporations trucks because the state owned enterprise was exempted from paying rates - Locals downstream already complaining about poor quality water . . . In the Shelley area, the corporation had been given several community assets, including a popular lookout, a camp, aprks, a disused rail line and historic trestle railway bridges recognised by the LCC. Article quotes Tony Manderson - (Age p7 12/11/96).

1996 November: farmers set up business to export bluegum. Timber 2000 Pty Ltd launched last week in Hamilton to promote the plantation of blue gum on up to 30,000 ha near Portland . . . There are about 400 members of Timber 2000, which is negotiating deals with four overseas mills and one Australian opertor. Members had already planted 700 trees in the Green Triangle this year . . . 3000 ha to be harvested annually (ph (03) 5574 2222) for further details - (Herald Sun 25/11/96 p22).

1996 November: Extra 1500 ha of pine trees to be planted in South Australia, including a move into Victoria. "The Green Triangle Treefarm Project will result in millions of trees being planted in the region," Mr Kerin said. . . The state's 62,269 ha of South East radiata pine forests - the biggest individual ownership of the total 144,539 ha of radiata forests in the Green Triangle - produced $90 million in gross sales revenue in 1995-96. (Adelaide Advertiser 28/11/96 p7).

1997 February: Pat MacNamara (Vic Deputy Premier) annouces that 20,000 hectares of Tasmanian blue gums were to be planted across south-western Victoria and south eastern south Australia - expected to yield 500,000 tonnes of woodchips by the year 2010. It is being spearheaded by The Green Triangle Plantation Forest Company of Australia - a consortium of three Japanese firms. (Herald Sun 12/2/97 p24).

1997 March: Confidential report to state governments recommends the privatisation of Australia's $4 billion of publicly owned plantations. This raises concerns that international investors may ignore domestic opportunities for value-added processing. Privatisation the recommendation of the Centre for International Economics, which was commissioned by State forestry ministers. Senate will also approves removing controls on the export of unprocessed plantation timber. The export regulation changes were introduced into the Parliament by the Minister for Primary Industries and Resources, Mr John Anderson. (Financial Review 18/3/97 p3).

1997 March: Public Lands Council of Victoria president Heather Mitchell said she would oppose the sale of the VPC and the privatisation of $4 billion worth of Australia's plantations or of any land which had conservation or recreational value. Victorian National Parks Association also alarmed by sale "The principle aspect at stake is the loss of the land, a public asset" Herald Sun 19/3/97 p16

1997 April: Tree plantation owners will have to establish their own fire brigades under legistlation before State Parliament. The Fire Authorities (Amendment) Bill provides for the formation of industry fire brigades to make a "first strike" response to plantation fires. The brigades will be registered by the Country Fire Authority . . . the legislation follows the transfer of more than 115,000 hecatres of government pine plantations to the Victorian Plantation Corporation. The transfer has moved responsibility for controlling fires in the plantations from the DNRE to the CFA. (The Age 5/4/97 p8).

1997 April: Plantation timber production surpasses one million hectares according to the Bureau of Resource Sciences First National Plantation Inventory - a total of 1,042,550 ha in 1994, comprising 883,980 ha of softwood and 158,570 ha of hardwood. The Murray Valley region had the largest share of the national plantation stock with 162,770 ha. (Herald Sun Melb 23/4/97 p24)

1997: 2020 Vision Launched. Meaning a trebling of Australia's plantation base. (Mercury 22/9/97).

The 2020 Vision for trebling Australia's plantation estate came largely from the establishment of Plantations Australia which was formed in 1995. It seems that the work done by this group has been fundamental in convincing the Victorian government to treble its plantation base. Interestingly Plantations Australia is dominated by representatives of Australia's largest native forest woodchippers and multi national companies. Plantations Australia Executive - 1997. Angus Pollock - Australian Paper (Amcor) - Chairman Henry Pens - CSR Timber Jeff Banks - AUSPINE Kevin White - Victorian Plantations Corporation/(Hancock) Curly Humphries - Australian Newsprint Mills Les Baker - Norths Geoff McArthur - Bunnings Forest Products and Australian Forest Growers Hans Drielsma - NSW State Forests.

The VictorianGovernment planned to treble the existing plantation base by the year 2020 to 750 000 hectares (an additional 23 000 hectares of plantations each year). It estimated that up to 1.7 million hectares of land is suitable for contribution, located in the following municipalities. South Grampains (270 000 ha), Glenelg (220 000 ha), Corangamite (190 000 ha), Delataite (180 000ha), Strathbogie (150 000ha), Ararat (140 000 ha), Moyne (120 000 ha), Wangaratta (120 000 ha), Indigo (110 000 ha), Wellington (100 000 ha), East Gippsland (80 000 ha) and Mitchell (50 000 ha).

1998 February: More than 160,000 hectares of public land has effectively been privatised by the Kennett Government the state-owned Victorian Plantation Corporation tells an Administrative Appeals Tribunal hearing. (Age p4 5/2/98).

1998 March: Victorian Government expected to raise more than $700 million from the sale of the Victorian Plantation Corporation. "Privatisation of the VPC will also be an important factor in Victoria achieving its goal of trebling the area of plantations by 2020, easing pressure on public forests" Mr Stockdale said. (Australian 17/3/98 p24).

1998 March: Sale of VPC . . . "Rural communities are also expected to benefit from the rates paid by the privatised VPC direct to local councils. Colac Otway Shire will gain 3700 hectares of ratable plantations while Surfcoast Shire will gain 1000 hectares which it will be able to collect council rates on. . . (Colac Herald 27/3/98 p16).

1998 April: South Gippsland residents protest outside Parliament House in Melbourne about moves by the Victorian Government to privatise the VPC . . . Protesters said 20,000ha of the 167,921ha managed by VPC was native bush including rainforest and mountain ash. (Herald Sun 29/4/98. p21)

1998 May: 9000 ha of blue gum eucalypt straddle the South Australian-Victorian border. With the proliferation of private investment schemes, a further 5000ha to 10000ha is due to be planted this year. The major source of growth will be the Green Triangle Treefarm project which expects to plant more than 10,000 ha of blue gum in the next 10 years . . . Treefarm is a joint venture agreement with three private Japanese companies that guaranteed the sale of the hardwood to Nippon Paper Industries. . . Blue gum projects offered tax advantages, with establishment and management costs and the cost of leasing land all deductible. The State Government first planted the species on a trial plantation in the South-East in 1988. Since 1991, local pulp maker Kimberly Clark entered into agreements with local growers to establish blue gum eucalypt for its mill near Tantanoola, eliminating the need to import hardwood from Portugal and Brazil. . . (Adelaide Advertiser 16/5/98 p58).

1998 August: Friends of the Gippsland Bush send LaTrobe Shire a response to the Gippsland Pilot Study - Timber harvesting (coupe) plan certification. The report slams plantation logging in the Strzeleckis

1998 October: Concerns raised about plantations by Kerrup Jmara Elder, *** ****. Tour to Lower Glenelg National Park revealed infestation by Radiata Pine into National Park and native forest throughout south west. "It's just so sad! Because our country is gone. Our country is finished and all they want is these pines. Pines from Portland to Millicent and that is the hardest thing in regards for me as a blackfella, with regards to my country and how deep and deep into my own heart, what's happened". "Pines, with me. I would say throw them out! We need our own country and that's so important!" *** ****- Portland 20/10/98.

1998 November: A leading Japanese paper company that has invested in Victoria's timber industry has warned of unrealsitic expectations of returns from wood products. The general manager of overseas forestation at Oji Paper Co Ltd, Mr Kenji Kanda told a conference in Melbourne that paper prices were sliding while woodchip prices were relatively flat . . . Oji Paper has planted 417 hectares of eucalypt plantation forest in the green triangle area of south-western Victoria, but aims to plant 10,000 hectares there by 2010. . . Oji aims to plant 200,000 hecatres by 2010 and has already committed itself to plant 110,000 hecatres in Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Vietnam . . . Of the company's total committed so far, 46,000 hectares is eucalyptus plantations in Australia - 10,000 hectares in Victoria, 26,000 in Western Australia and 10,000 near Brisbane. The area planted in WA is now 10,853 hectares. . . Mr Kanda said the 200,000 hecatres was probably about a third of the volume that Oji needed . . . (The Age. 23/11/98 pb4)

1998 December: Sale of VPC to John Hancock Insurance Company of America - Plantations to be called Hancock Victorian Plantations. 1998: December - US owners of the VPC sign up another partner - Melbourne's Hastings Funds Management. Two weeks ago Hancock and the Australian institutional investors Unisuper and National Australia Asset Management, and superannuation investors managed by Morgan Grenfell agreed to pay a 56% premium to book value for a lease in perpetuity over the Victorian Government's corporatised pine and hardwood plantations . . . According to the John Hancock 1997 annual report, its timber arm HTRG, which is now the majority owner of the new Hancock Victorian Plantations, generated a return of 19.8% in 1997 - revenue and capital appreciation. VPC, HTRG's biggest single purchase ever and its first foray outside North America, last year had listed assets of $352 million and made a net operating profit after tax of $24.8 million from revenue of $81.5 million . . . According to the former head of the VPC and Hancock Victorian Plantations new chief executive Kevin White, the venture can still improve productivity through increased attention to weeds, fertiliser and nutrient levels, and through genetic developments. Beyond the trees, the company would like to see clarification of uncertainty over rate liability to shire councils . . . (Age 7/12/98 pb3).

1999 March: Western Plains Pine Plantation Group won appeal to stop spread of new pine plantations in district of Lismore and Bradvale. Hancock Victorian Plantations had planned to plant an extra 1000 hectares of pine in their district. (Weekly Times March 24 1999 p1).

1999 March: Municipal authorites investigation Hancock Victorian Plantations over breaches to the Code of Forest Practices in the Strzeleckis. (Age p4 ?/3/99).

1999 April: Sale of CSR softwood timber interests and two sawmills in Victoria and South Australia, a pine-moulding unit and woodchip business to US based RII Weyerhauser World Timberfund for $224 million.

1999 June: Green Triangle Forest Products' purchase CSR Softwoods.

1999 June: Sharp rise in fox numbers puts Victorian lamb producers under threat. According to VFF regional manager of the Western District, Mr Tyrrell Evans, "Fox numbers are definately increasing very quickly. There has been a big increase in the number of blue gum plantations and the foxes have been breeding in these relatively sheltered areas". With most of the traditional agricultural activities delivering poor returns, many Victorian farmers have turned their paddocks over to blue gum trees as a long-term investment. Mr Ivan Vowles from Beaufort said "We've lost about 20 lambs this year. The foxes have been very active . . . They are coming out of the blue gum plantations and picking off the lambs" he said. (Age p7 16/6/99).

1999 July: Victorian Planning Minister Robert Maclellan writes "It is State planning policy that timber production is an "as of right" provision in the zone. The policy ensures the private forestry sector is treated equitably with other crop growers and is not discriminated against through land use planning controls. Any additional controls need strategic consideration. Accordingly I will not approve the new Corangamite Planning Scheme with a requirement for a permit for plantations". 17/7/99 Letter to Peter Grist Western Plains Plantation Group.

1999 September: Bush towns fearful as timber plantations swallow farms (Age 4/9/99 p17). 445 hectare farm leveled at Wanwin, in western Victoria. "But the rapid growth in plantations has many farmers concerned about the future of their communities. Mr Peter Grist a spokesperson for the Western Plains Plantation Group, a coalition of farmers formed to fight for improved planning arrangements for the plantation industry, said the economic, social and environmental problems associated with tree farms were often overlooked by the authorities . . . He said plantations were removing people from regional communities. "If those families go, the negative flow-on effects on mail deliveries, local businesses, schools and doctors is enourmous." Other impacts include a reduction in land prices due to contracting of the local community, a decrease in surface water run-off and the recharge of underground water systems, an increased fire risk. "We are not opposed to commercial plantations as long as they add to the positive things already happening in the rural community" he said. A spokeswoman for the lobby group A Future for Rural Australia, Ms Linette Treasure, believes plantations are contributing to the "social and cultural genocide of rural communties . . . An East Gippsland farmer, Mr Derek Manning, is taking a plantation company to the Victorian Civil and Administrative Appeals Tribunal to stop an approved development on Mount Delegate. "We are trying to build up tourism around the mountain but no one will want to come and see it when its half-covered by pine trees," he said.

1999 September: Report slams state forestry group. "The State Government's former plantations corporation (Victorian Plantation Corporation) cleared ecologically sensitive bushland in Gippsland to expand its commercial operations before being privatised in 1998. Report written by retired University academic Dr Tim Ealey also accuses the VPC of having breached the forest industry code of practice. (Age p2 15/9/99). - follow up trip by FoE and FoGB revealed clearing native vegetation still occuring by Hancock.

2000 March: Herald Sun p 11 March 22 2000.

Critically endangered red-tailed black cockatoos have had their Victorian breeding haven ruined. The clearing of a patch of dead and hollowed red gum trees - the species' most important nesting site - in the Wimmera has been dealt a blow to hopes of their survival.

Plantation company Timbercorp allegedly knocked down the ancient trees in a breach of a council instruction. Of the 18 known nesting sites of the cockatoo, the 80 trees on the 287ha property contained six. There are believed to be fewer than 1000 birds left.

Director of municipal services for West Wimmera Shire Council, Date Thornton, said the planning permit given to Timbercorp in January stated the trees must be kept. "They knocked the down against the permit and we are now going through two choices - one of which is to seek an enforcement order through VCAT or negotitate a settlement for restitution," Mr Thronton said. Timbercorp applied for a permit so they could start a blue gum plantation on the property near Dergholm in the west Wimmera.

Federal Environment Minister Robert Hill (?) is angry about the alleged breach. "It is simply not good enough that the trees specifically identified for protection under the conditions of the clearing permit have been destroyed," he said.

Environment Australia's (?) Katrina Jensz said the cleared site was the most significant nesting area of the birds. "This is one of the country's most endangered birds," Ms Jensz said. A spokesperson for Timbercorp said he could not comment because of negotiations with the shire.

2000 March: Wimmera Mail Times March 27 2000.

"West Wimmera Shire Council has thrashed out the controversial subject of tree clearing and red-tailed black cockatoo habitat destruction. A threat of legal action also hung over the debate, which brought intense scrutiny from federal and state politicians, the national media, former councillors and environmental groups. Unauthorised tree clearing south of Powett? Creek sparked uproar last week and focused attention on Thursday nights council meeting at Edenhope.

To add fuel to the fire, the meeting agenda listed another application for tree clearing - 250 stringybark trees at Kadnook for a bluegum plantation. Municipal Services director Dale Thornton told the meeting that environmental Systems Renewable Resources wanted to clear the 250 stringybarks from 128 hectares of low value grazing land that had previously been cleared. The applicant would protect redgums along a drainage line to allow natural regeneration, and retain two denser stands of stringybarks. About 20 hecatres would be fenced off and allowed to return to the environment. "This will far outweigh the 250 trees" Mr Thornton said.

The applicant could have proceeded without a permit under exemption clauses, but voluntarily applied for a planning permit. This allowed council to set controls on the clearing. Mr Thornton said the Natural Resources and Environment Department was 'more than comfortable' with the application, subject to nine conditions. The council received one objection from Environment Victoria, which Mr Thornton said also took the 'unusual step' of issuing a press statement and had discussed the possibility of briefing lawyers for legal proceedings.

Mr Thornton said state Environment Minister Sherryl Garbutt told him she was happy for council to decide on the application. Environment Victoria's objection said native vegetation clearing was against the spirit of the State Government's Biodiversity Strategy, the 'partially degraded or less-than-pristine' vegetation should be retained and enhanced, the clearing would diminish the habitat of the endangered red-tailed black cockatoo and other fauna, habitat would be further fragmented, about 3000 hecatres of native vegetation was cleared in Victoria each year, replacement vegetation would cause significant loss of biodiversity, and blue gum plantations might not be sustainable as a crop in the long term.

Natural Resources and Environment Department Wimmera co-ordinator of flora, fauna and fisheries Jim McGuire told the council the property was inspected on February 16. He said blue gum plantings would 'contribute greatly' to addressing salinity and was a land use the department would seek to encourage on such country. Removal of grazing would encourage natural regeneration and reduce sediment movement. The stringbarks were small and did not rpovide suitable nesting hollows for the red tailed black cockatoo. Stringybark forest on two sides of the block meant the loss of trees on the block would not cause significant loss of food source for the species, and the site met criteria for an exemption for timber production. In reply to a question, Mr Thornton said Environment Victoria had not inspected the site.

Cr Ron Hawkins: "We should reaffirm the feelings we received in the election campaign that this community wants to see responsible development. The plan we have received is a good trade off for the environment." Cr Geoffrey Carracher: "It is continuing the progress and development of the West Wimmera Shire. Council approved the application subject to 12 conditions including nine conditions recommended by the department.

2001 3 January: From p4 Weekly Times 3/101 Row looms over water threat to blue gums. By Nikki Borchard

A heated debate between irrigators and forestry developers has broken out in South Australia over state government plans to amend water legislation.

Significant forestry development in the south-east of South Australia, particularly blue gum plantations, has caused concern over its impact on the sustainability of water resources. As a result, water resources minister Mark Brindal last month proposed the introduction of water licences for new forestry plantations to deal with significant land use change.

But forestry developers claim such amendments to the Water Resources Act would freeze plantation development and threaten the future of forestry. One of Australia’s largest plantation companies, Timbercorp Limited, argued that plantation developers should not have to pay for what they did not use.

"The industry cannot proceed with further expansion until it gains a clearer view of the effects of his (Mr Brindal) proposals," Timbercorp chairman David Muir said. "But if they are implemented as he has stated, the freeze will become permanent." He said industry saw no reason to pay for a resource it did not use, and the added cost could only detract from its economic viability.

But irrigators claim they face having their groundwater licences reduced as a result of the effect of land use changes and recharge. Mt Gambier dairy farmer Gary Spain said it came down to the fact that "you can’t allow one industry out of the water net to expand at the detriment or expense of others". "We all acknowledge that we just can’t have open slather irrigation," Mr Spain said. "But for forestry to operate in this area, it needs to operate under the same regime and be accountable for their impact. "So long as there is a level playing field, market forces will prevail."

However, Mr Muir argued it was "a scientifically dubious proposition that forestry plantations were reducing groundwater resources and hindering their recharge".

Mr Brindal told the South Australian parliament in November that there were two main schools of thought on the issue - a traditionalist view and a contemporary view. "Traditionalists do not believe that water rights should be seperated from land and that any loss of water resource caused by land use change - such as forestry - should be borne by irrigators," Mr Brindal said. "But the contemporary view would require an amendment ensuring that plantations in sensitive areas of the south-east - to be known as Recharge Water Management Areas - will be accountable for their impact upon the recharge of the unconfined aquifer." Mr Brindal will meet irrigators and plantation developers in the south-east next week.

2001 3 January: Border Watch p3 3/1/01 Bluegum water use research

Early research by the CSIRO has suggested that bluegums can use underground water. Embryonic results at a Beachport planting indicate that bluegums could be taking groundwater specifically on that site. But CSIRO Forestry and Forestry Products research scientist Richard Benyon said the results were not yet conclusive enough to publish.

He said the Beachport trial site did not have the same characteristics as other plantings around the Wattle Range Council area, where most bluegems were going. "We cannot yet say that (the trees use underground water) for the majority of bluegums in the region," Mr Benyon said. "The CSIRO is hoping for extra funding to gain knowledge about the water use of bluegums in the Wattle Range area and we hope to focus this research over the next few years." Two bluegum sites were being tested, the Beachport plantation and a small one at Padthaway. At this stage the Padthaway site had not used underground water but this water table was much lower than at Beachport and further south. Meanwhile, the Beachport site had soils which were too different to provide a conclusive result for plantings in the Wattle Range and Mount Gambier districts. A wet winter did not make results any easier to determine and more information would be known after summer.

"I think a lot of sites around Wattle Range perhaps have more clay in the soil. But some early results give an indication that the (Beachport bluegums) may be taking some groundwater," Mr Benyan said. "At Beachport the bluegums use at least as much water as they receive from rainfall, a possibly use a bit more than that from the shallow water table, but that is not a generalisation. "We really need to focus on where the trees are going into the ground rather than 40 hectares at Beachport and five hectares at Padthaway. "The main reason for doing the work there was to look at how management of the plantations affected water use and to see if we could grow bluegums to produce higher value products."

Mr Benyon said main research on water use of bluegums had not yet started and would not begin until funding was received. He hoped money would come from the industry and State Government. He said research would start early next year, and continue for several years to take into account climate and soil differences among other variations.

2001 9 January Border Watch 9/1/01: Invitation only meeting between South Australia’s third Water Resources Minister Mark Brindal and some stakeholders occurs in Mount Gambier.

Meeting sparked by Mr Brindal’s October 30 promise to consult with the South East community when he failed to introduce legislation into parliament. During parliament’s 2000 winter session, the government introduced legislation to enable the pro rata rollout of water - following the payment of money to government, landholders could apply for a small amount of water in Hundreds which had not been fully allocated. But the state Democrats believed changes should be introduced which forced tree plantation oweners to have water licences, causing a deadlock between the Upper and Lower Houses. It was finally broken when Mr Brindal promised the parliament he would introduce new legislation to parliament’s final session. (Mr Brindal has yet failed to introduce the legislation).

In a ministerial statement on October 30, Mr Brindal proposed changes to the Water Resources Act which would require all new forests to carry water licences. But before introducing the proposal, Mr Brindal promised to consult with the community. "The focus will be on the impact of dramatic forestry expansion upon the groundwater recharge and the future implementation for existing licenced water users.

Representatives have been invited from the forest industry to present an industry view of the issue. Views are also being sought from representatives of irrigators involved in potato, viticulture, small seed and dairying industries" said Mr Brindal.

9/1/01: South East Water Catchment Management Board still out to lunch about bluegums and water. Yet to finalise issues such as Permissible Annual Volume, transfer rules and hydrological effects of using water.

9/1/01: Combined South East Irrigators change name to Limestone Coast Irrigators Association (LCIA). LCIA represents the regions wine industry council, dairyfarmers, potato growers, SA Farmers Federation Seed Section and the Mid South East Irrigators. The group has lobbied continuously for increased funding and resources to be made available for hydrogeological offices locally to expediate understanding of the resources. Mr Gary Spain said all stakeholders agreed the resource had to be protected through Permissable Annual Volumes (PAVs). "A key mechanism in the formulation of PAVs is verticle recharge. If significant land use change has a negative impact on recharge then it must be accounted for in the overall water budget." he said. In relation to land use change, Mr Spain said three key issues should be considered - dramatic change, economic and social impacts and visionary. "Dramatic land use change needs to be tied to water allocation to protect all ground water users from potential adverse hydrogeological impacts," Mr Spain said. He said there would be a significant economic and social impact on irrigating families if in the future PAVs were reviewed and those reliant on irrigation had reduced ground water allocations forced upon them. 10/1/01: Brindal promises a solution to the water allocations for new tree plantations within two months following the invitation only meeting (which locked out the public and media) with water stakeholders.

16/1/01: Public meeting in Penola discusses the water matter.

17/1/01: The state government confronts an alarming dilemma over the South East controversial water issue - but it is a no-win situation according to an influential water industry authority. South East Catchment Water Management Board Chief executive Hugo Hopton said the government faced two ‘unpalatable options:

1) Throwing uncertainty into established South East Industries.

2) Stunting the growth of the burgeoning bluegum industry.

A rapid spike of bluegum plantations of 35,000 hecatres has brought to a head four major agricultural industry players in the South East, which generate hundreds of millions of dollars each year. The timber industry, pine industry, industrial/irrigation industries and the rain-fed sector could either be winners or losers in the water debate. "The minister has to look at the consequences of both - that one is to hamper the expansion of the bluegum sector, the other is to bring uncertainty into the region where there is already infrastructure and value adding" said Mr Hopton.

18/1/01: Standing room only at a public meeting in Penola on Tuesday night when more than 150 people crowded into Rymill Hall to hear the latest in the debate about whether forests will be forced to have water licences. A Victorian and South Australian landholder said his Victorian land carried a water licence. If he sold his Victorian land, the water licencee returned to the Crown - underground water was not sold, leased or hoarded. He said the SA government’s arguements about the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) agreement of 1994 (aiming for the seperation of land title and water) had not made any difference to Victoria’s method of dealing with underground water allocations. "In Victoria there has been none of these meetings. Once the water was tradeable, that is when the trouble started (in the South East) the land owner said.

18/1/01: Community has at least 6 options to consider as its preferred solution to the current water debate. List of four options prepared by the Water Resources Department with two other options coming from industry reps at water meeting last week.

1) Making no policy change - The Water Resources Department claims this option subscribes to continually eroding the existing Permissable Annual Volumes (PAVs) to match the declining recharge and it would mean reduction of allocations in fully allocated zones.

2) Totally lock out forestry in groundwater management zones that are fully allocated.

3) Tradeable recharge rights. The department claims this is a significant change to the current water resources management system. It redistributes all existing water allocations. The department said this option would weaken the State’s position on River Murray issues.

4) Make forestry accountable for its impact on recharge. The department said this would have forestry landuse changes compete for a water allocation that reflects the level of interference on recharge.

5) Irrigators and dryland farmer agreement. The department explained this option would involved existing licensed irrigators to voluntarily enter into a rental agreement with a "catchment landholder" to preserve existing catchment yield. But the department argues an "insurance outcome cannot be guaranteed".

6) Landuse changes to forestry. The department said this option was to authorise forestry landuse changes with a water allocation that reflected the level of interference on recharge. The department claims that in this option forestry would have access to water, without cost, in management zones that were not fully allocated. 19/1/01: Forestry states that out of the 6 options listed yesterday it prefers Option 1.

2001 August: Hancock buys out Australian Paper Plantations for $A140 million. These plantations are all located in Gippsland and the Strzelecki Ranges.